Archive for January 15, 2013
The Rationale for a Distinct Economic System Based on Islamic Values Originating from the Moral Teachings of Islam
Islam can be seen as a system of ethics comprised of philosophical and conceptual foundations. This system of ethics consists of Al’-adl wa’l-ihsan (Equilibrium and beneficence or socio-economic justice), Fard (responsibility), Rububiyyah (Divine arrangements for nourishment, sustenance, and directing things towards their perfection), Tazkiyah (purification plus growth), Tawhid (God’ unity and sovereignty), and Ikhtiyar (free-will). Combined with Shari’ah and fiqh, this comprehensive moral code provides a reason and framework for a distinct moral economy based on risalah or the teachings of Jesus (p.b.u.h.), Moses (p.b.u.h.) and Muhammad (s.a.w.), the Bible, Torah, Qu’ran, and Sunnah.
The rationale for a distinct economic system based on the moral teachings of Islam actually reflects the morality of all religions and humane philosophies. The key ideas behind Islamic finance including the belief in divine guidance; the no-interest rule; socially responsible investing; the sharing of risk; and the using of real assets to finance deals find resonance with all people desiring a moral economy, which works for the benefit rather than the detriment of the majority of humanity.
For instance, Riba (interest) was prohibited in both Judaism and Christianity long before Islam and the Qu’ran is just re-stating what the two previous Holy Books have already mentioned. In fact, many of the economic principles in Islam can be traced back through the Holy Books to the messages expounded by Jesus (p.b.u.h.) and Moses (p.b.u.h.). “Indeed, to protect society’s integrity and means of self-support for its members, every religion in history perceived that the system of usury… was opposed to the proper workings of society” (Choudhury, 2007:59). Islamic banking is therefore a form of Holy Book Banking, encompassing principles found in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
The Moral Teachings of Islam
Asutay says that “Islamic economics aims at a world order where the ontological and epistemological sources, the Qu’ran and the Hadith, determine the framework of the economic value system” (2012:22). Choudhury elaborates that “The unifying worldview is derived from the epistemology and ontology of Divine Unity… We thus have the epistemology of Divine Unity and the unification process of knowledge emanating from Divine Unity” (2001:3). Therefore, by using a system of knowledge based on a tawhid One-God epistemology we can deduce a set of moral teachings, which should guide us in the creation of a distinct economy. It is this Divine Unity epistemology and ontology derived from Qu’ran and Sunnah, according to Asutay and Choudhury, which should form the basis of the framework of the Islamic economy and should mold the values and behavior of the institutions and actors found in the superstructure of society. Asutay states that “Islamic banking and finance institutions should thus be located within this framework, and possess a systemic understanding in order to serve the aims and objectives of Islamic economics and hence contribute to the falah process for individuals by expanding the ihsani social capital in the society” (2012:22). Through serving Allah in our financial activities, one works simultaneously towards the betterment of oneself, one’s family, humanity, and salvation. “An Islamic economic system is based on a two-dimensional utility function, operating in a positive correlation with each other” (Asutay, 2007:8). As life in the hereafter is linked to our activities on earth, the economic system has a two-dimensional utility function, with man seeking to earn a living and at the same time striving to enter heaven. “The darkness in the Hereafter is nothing but a reflection of darkness created by us in this world through injustice (zulm). (Chapra, 2008, 11).
In Islam, “the individual is perceived to be the vice-regent of God on earth, a khalifah, to fulfill the expected duties in their social, economic, financial and other behaviors in order to make their decision through a moral filter” (Asutay, 2012: 21,22). The moral filter is supported by the Qu’ran and Sunnah, the Shari’ah, and fiqh. We have been left guidance for how to structure our financial dealings and transactions to promote optimal human productivity and well-being in all of the Holy Books, the most recently being the Qu’ran. Choudhury states “The Qu’ran constructs historical processes by ancient narrations that leave a lasting and permanent moral import for the guidance of mankind and the applicability of the underlying laws, guidance and lessons for human experience” (2007: 5,6). Choudhury also mentions that “the Shari’ah is a part of the phenomenological construction and explanation of the world-systems that are patterned on the basis of the Moral Law as derived from the Qu’ran and the Sunnah” (2007: 57). The guidance of the Qu’ran and Sunnah can be found in itself and derived through the Shari’ah and combined with fiqh, provides a useful source of knowledge, which can be used as the base of all human activity.
Dusuki says that Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (d. 1111 CE) defined Maqasid or the Objectives of the Shari’ah through five objectives “The very objective of the Shari’ah is to promote the well-being of the people, which lies in safeguarding their faith (din), their lives (nafs), their intellect (aql), their posterity (nasl) and their wealth (mal)” (2011:3). Whatever ensures the safeguarding of these five serves public interest and is desirable and whatever hurts them is against public interest and its removal is desirable. Professor Mehmet Asutay says that “The entire objective of Islamic Economics and the operational aspect of Shari’ah is to serve ‘human well-being,’ which is the main and essentialized aim of all efforts within the tawhidi (One-God framework)” (2012:22). When constructing the Islamic economy, therefore the Shari’ah must mold the base and the Objectives or Maqasid al Shari’ah must frame the One-God tawhidi framework, which incorporates risalah or the teachings of Moses (p.b.u.h.), Jesus (p.b.u.h) and Muhammad (s.a.w.). “He has sent His guidance to all people at different times in history through a chain of His Messengers including Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad… Thus, there is a continuity and similarity in the basic worldview and value system of all Revealed religions” (Chapra, 2008, 21). The goal is to create a distinct economy based on the moral teachings of Islam, which includes risalah, the teachings of all of the prophets and messengers of God, including Moses (p.b.u.h.), Jesus (p.b.u.h.), and Muhammad (s.a.w.), the Bible, Torah, Qu’ran, and Sunnah. Therefore, Tawhid (God’ Unity and Sovereignty) is the Islamic worldview, which is based on tawhid (the Oneness of God), risalah (God’s prophets as the source of Divine Guidance), akirah (life-after death) and a system of accountability based on Divine Law” (Asutay, 2007:8). It is through the tawhidi framework, which the Islamic moral economy based on risalah should emerge.
Islam can be seen as a System of Ethics with Conceptual Foundations Reflected Through the Shari’ah
Islam can be seen as a system of ethics comprised of philosophical and conceptual foundations. This system of ethics consists of Al’-adl wa’l-ihsan (Equilibrium and beneficence or socio-economic justice), Fard (responsibility), Rububiyyah (Divine arrangements for nourishment, sustenance, and directing things towards their perfection), Tazkiyah (purification plus growth), Tawhid (God’ unity and sovereignty), and Ikhtiyar (free-will).
According to Al’-adl wa’l-ihsan (Equilibrium and beneficence or socio-economic justice), individuals are expected to establish justice (‘adl) and promote beneficence (ihsan) on a micro and macro level as well as establish an economic framework through which to expound socio-economic justice. Asutay says that this would in turn produce social equilibrium (Naqvi, 1994 as cited in 2007:8). “The absence of justice cannot but ultimately lead to misery and destruction (Qu’ran, 20:111).”
In terms of Fard (Responsibility), people are responsible to each other and to Allah to serve Allah and fulfill their mutual obligations for the benefit of society. “Accordingly, it is the personal obligation (Fard ‘ayn) of every Muslim to earn a living to support himself and his family…and it is the collective obligation (fard kifayah) of a Muslim society to manage the economy in such a way that everyone has a suitable opportunity to earn an honest living in keeping with his/her ability and effort (Chapra, 2008, 16).” Asutay explains “Hence, in economic terms, there is a social aspect and responsibility of every asset owned or managed by private or public entities (2007:8).”
In Islam, one lives for Allah rather than the market and production should be for humanity rather than a particular market or trading bloc. “Rububiyyah or the Divine arrangements for nourishment, sustenance, and directing things towards their perfection is the fundamental law of the universe, which throws light on the divine model for the useful development of resources and their mutual support and sharing” (Asutay, 2007:8). Divine resource management should be the central principle guiding production and development, which is based on a Divine mode of production. Asutay says that “It is in the context of these divine arrangements that human efforts take place” (2007:8). Thus, production should be focused around human need rather than maximizing shareholder’s wealth in order to serve Allah rather than the market.
The mission of all of the Prophets including Moses (p.b.u.h.), Jesus (p.b.u.h), and Muhammad (s.a.w.) was to perform tazkiyah (purification plus growth) of an individual in her relationship with God, with other people, and with the environment, society, and the state. This purification process would lead to the purification of the capitalist system into a moral economy. Tawhid, is the worldview, which is based on risalah, akirah (life-after death) and a system of accountability based on Divine Law. “It provides for freedom of action whereby each individual is viewed as an integral part of the whole” (Asutay, 2007:8). This freedom is not without bounds and is seen in the context of the larger society. “While freedom is indispensable for every individual, the well-being of all is also indispensable and cannot be compromised. Therefore, some socially agreed restrictions are necessary on individuals to ensure that they do not trespass the rights of others and jeopardize their well-being” (Chapra, 2008, 10). Freedom is allowed to the extent it causes harm to another. “As khalifas of God…the freedom of human beings is bounded by moral values to ensure not just their own well-being but also the well-being of all God’s creatures. When the angels realized at the time of man’s creation that he was going to be God’s khalifah on earth with freedom to act on his own initiative, they had an apprehension that this freedom might lead him to corrupt the earth and to shed blood (Qu’ran, 2:30)…To help them avoid such a fall, God has Himself provided them with the second precious asset which is the guidance sent by Him to all human beings and nations at different times in history through a chain of His Messengers. The purpose of this guidance is to assist them in managing their affairs in this world in a way that would help ensure the well-being of all in harmony with their mission as khalifas of God. Their freedom is, therefore, within the bounds of the guidance provided by Him.” (Chapra, 2008, 13). Therefore, Shari’ah provides injunctions to mankind to ensure the well-being of humanity, justice, and peace on earth as well to promote the man’s role as khalifah on earth. The moral teachings of Islam, derived through the Shari’ah from the Qu’ran and Sunnah, the Fiqh, and the messages of all of the Messengers of God provide mankind guidance on how to structure financial transactions to preserve harmony and humanity as a whole.
Through remaining accountable to Allah, we act through a moral filter cleansing our psyche of the desire to inflict harm. We seek to please Allah by abiding by His Divine injunctions and rules and attain a better life in the Hereafter. This is the rationale behind purifying the capitalist system into a distinct economic system, which serves God’s will rather than that of man. In Islam, humans are ultimately accountable before Allah and are sent to earth only to carry out their assigned tasks and use their God-given abilities for the advancement of God’s will.
These compassionate goals are universal and found within the hearts of all of the brothers and sisters of the Holy Books including the Bible, Torah, and Qu’ran. In reality, Islamic finance strikes the cords of justice, equality, and peace, which already exist in the moral mind-set of many people around the world, regardless of their ethnicity, gender, or religious affiliation and hence the popularity of and curiosity about such modes of financing amongst the people of the Book.
Abdullah, Daud Vicary and Chee, Keon (2010). Why Islamic Finance Makes Sense, Understanding Its Practices and Principles. Singapore: Cavendish International Press.
Asutay, Mehmet (2007). “Conceptualization of the Second Best Solution in Overcoming the Social Failure of Islamic Banking and Finance, Examining the Overpowering of Homoislamicus by Homoeconomicus.” IIUM Journal of Economics and Management 15, no. 2, 167-195.
Asutay, Mehmet (2007). “A Political Economy Approach to Islamic Economics: Systemic Understanding for an Alternative Economic System.” Kyoto Bulletin of Islamic Area Studies, 1-2, 3-18.
Asutay, Mehmet (2012). “Islamic Economics: Between Aspirations and Reality.” Papers of Dialogue, Agenzia Italia, 20-23.
Chapra, Muhammad Umer (2008). The Islamic Vision of Development in the Light of Maqasid al-Shari’ah. London: International Institute of Islamic Thought.
Choudhury, Masudul Alam (2007). The Islamic World System, A Study in Polity-Market Interaction. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Ptd. Ltd.
Choudhury, Dr. Masudul Alam (2001). “Survey Article Islamic Political Economy.” Analysis 8 (1&2).
Ghosh, B.N. (1995). “The Ontology of Islamic Political Economy: A Meta theoretic Analysis.” Volume 11, Number 3.
Kamali, Mohammad Hashim (2011). Shari’ah Law: An Introduction. Oxford, England: One-World Publications.
Understanding Riba (Interest) and Gharar (Uncertainty) in Islamic Finance
The philosophical and conceptual foundations behind the prohibition on riba (interest) and gharar (uncertainty) can be derived through the Shuratic process in discursive interpretation of the Qu’ran and Sunnah. Riba (interest) is in fact just a form of gharar (uncertainty). Gharar (uncertainty) opens the door for speculation, ruthless greed, immorality, and social decay. Both riba (interest) and gharar (uncertainty) result in social harm in the form of inflation, unemployment, volatility, instability, and environmental degradation. Riba (interest) and gharar (uncertainty) are both prohibited under Shari’ah as their harm outweighs any benefit, however, gharar (uncertainty) is allowed in instances where the benefit outweighs the harm.
Keywords: Riba (Interest); Gharar (Uncertainty), Islamic Finance, Shari’ah
In Islam, it is permissible to trade money for commodity, commodity for commodity, however, not money for money as this produces riba (interest). Riba (interest) is in fact just a form of gharar (uncertainty). Riba (interest) and gharar (uncertainty) are both prohibited under Shari’ah as their harm outweighs any benefit, however, gharar (uncertainty) is allowed in instances where the benefit outweighs the harm.
The Shari’ah allows for transactions where both counter-values are transacted at the time of the dealing or one counter-value now and one in the future, however, not both counter-values in the future as this creates gharar (uncertainty) about the fulfillment of the contract. However, this is allowed where the benefit outweighs the harm.
Since in interest financing, one counter-value is certain, the interest on the loan, and one counter-value is uncertain, the yield from investing the loan by the creditor, interest-finance is in fact an extreme case of gharar (uncertainty) and is prohibited under the Shari’ah as the harm outweighs the benefit. Saadallah says that in the case of riba (interest), the “variance in certitude between the two counter-values, the interest on the one hand and the opportunity cost on the other, constitutes the essence of the injustice of imposing interest on loans” (2009:111). Debt-finance replicates the result of interest-based financing and does not fulfill the requirements of the Shari’ah. Dusuki says “For a contract to be valid, there should be Iwadh or counter value present. Three elements of iwadh that should exist are risk (ghorm), work and effort (ikhtiar) and liability (daman). In the majority of debt-financing contracts, one or more of these elements of Iwadh are missing. If there is no risk, effort and liability, then such a contract cannot be considered to contain any element of justice” (2011:3).
Ridha Saadallah states that an often-cited reason for the Qu’ranic ban on interest is to “forestall injustice, since increasing the amount is in return of the time-term” (2009:111). Islam does not recognize the time value of money as time cannot be the sole consideration for an excess amount claimed in an exchange. Saadaallah says the excess amount must be claimed against an asset or commodity and not time as this would result in a money-money transaction. Taqi Usmani explains “Time of payment may act as an ancillary factor to determine the price of a commodity, but it cannot act as an exclusive basis for and the sole consideration of an excess claimed in exchange of money for money” (2000:10). Commodity-commodity and money-commodity transactions are allowed, however, not money-money transactions as this may result in (riba) interest. Interest financing leads to a false economy, creating instability, inflation, unemployment, and cyclical crashes. Islamic finance is asset-backed, which creates a real economy with real assets and inventories and promotes stability as well as creates an economy where speculators and bankers cannot crash markets for profit through greedy and reckless behavior. According to Taqi Usmani “Interest-based financing does not necessarily create real assets, therefore, the supply of money through the loans advanced by the financial institutions does not normally match with the real goods and services produced in the society, because the supply is increased, and sometimes multiplied without creating real assets in the same quantity” (2011:10). Usmani explains that “This gap between the supply of money and production of real assets creates or fuels inflation” (2011:10). In contrast, Usmani says “Since financing in an Islamic system is backed by assets, it is always matched with corresponding goods and services” (2011:10).
In an interest- based loan, the creditor receives a fixed rate of return no matter how much profit or loss the venture makes. If the venture makes a lot of money, the creditor receives a fixed rate of return. It would be more just if the creditor shared in the profits rather than just receiving a low fixed rate of return in the form of interest. If the venture makes a loss, the creditor still receives a fixed rate of return and the debtor bears the risk of the loss. It would be more equitable if the creditor shared in the loss rather than receiving an abnormally high rate of return in the form of interest. Riba (interest) results in a financial system where the debtors bear the majority of the risk and the creditor most of the reward.
According to Sheikh Wahba al Zuhayli, “Riba is a surplus of commodity without counter-value in commutative transaction of property for property” (2006:25). The intent of such a transaction is a surplus of commodities. Therefore, the definition of riba includes both credit riba and invalid sales, since postponement in either of the indemnities is a legal surplus without perceivable material recompense, the delay usually due to an increase in compensation (Zuhayli, 2006:25). In Islam, money – money transactions are not allowed and there is no time value of money concept. Taqi Usmani explains that “Any excess amount charged against late payment is riba only where the subject matter is money on both sides” (2011:10). Furthermore, “Any excess claimed in a credit transaction (of money exchange of money) is against nothing but time” (Usmani, 2011: 10).
There are two types of riba forbidden in Islam, credit and surplus riba. “Credit riba is taken against a delay in settlement of a due debt, regardless whether the debt be that of a goods sold or a loan” (Zuhayli, 2006: 26). Therefore, “Credit riba occurs due to their inclusion of an increase in one of the two exchanged goods without any counter-value (Zuhayli, 2006: 28). The impermissibility of exchanging equal amounts is due to the resulting increase in value. Zuhayli explains that this is because neither of the contracting parties would usually accept to postpone the receiving of the payment save if there were some benefit by increase in the value thereby (Zuhayli, 2006: 28). Credit riba represents a violation of the ‘hand to hand’ rule when one or both counter-values of a transaction are postponed to a future date (of goods of same genus).
Ubida b. al-Simit (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Gold is to be paid for by gold, silver by silver, wheat by wheat, barley by barley, dates by dates, and salt by salt, like for like and equal for equal, payment being made hand to hand. If these classes differ, then sell as you wish if payment is made hand to hand (Muslim, book 10, number 3853) (Visser, 2009: 34).
Zuhayli says that “Surplus riba is the sale of similar items with a disparity in amount in the six canonically-forbidden categories of goods; gold, silver, wheat, barley, salt, and dry dates” (2006: 26). It is the violation of the ‘equal for equal’ rule in spot transactions of the same goods of a particular genus. Zuhayli explains that “This type of riba is forbidden in order to prevent it being used as a pretext to committing credit riba, such that a person sells gold, for example, on credit, then pays back in silver more than the equivalent of what he had taken in gold” (2006: 26).” According to Visser, there is a ban on exchanging, for example, two low-quality dates for one high-quality date, even if it is permitted to sell the low-quality dates for money and use the receipts for buying a high-quality date (2009: 35).
Narrated by Abu Said Al-Khudri and Abu Huraira: Allah’s Apostle appointed somebody as a governor of Khaibar. That governor brought to him an excellent kind of dates (from Khaibar). The Prophet asked, ‘Are all the dates of Khaibar like this?’ He replied, ‘By Allah, no, Oh Allah’s Apostle! But we bartered one Sa of this type (type of dates) for two Sas of dates of ours and two Sas of it for three of ours.’ Allah’s Apostle said, ‘Do not do so (as that is a kind of usury) but sell the mixed dates (of inferior quality) for money, and then buy good dates with that money.’ (Bukhari, vol. 3, book 34, no. 405; see also Muslim, book 10, number 3875)(Visser, 2009:34).
The legal cause for the impermissibility of exchanging different amounts of edibles is, according to the Hanafi and Hanbali Schools, volume and weight; according to Imam Malik, its qualities being nutritious and storable; and for Imam Shafi, the mere fact that it is edible (Zuhayli, 2006: 39).
Gharar (uncertainty) originates from the Arabic verb gharra, which means to deceive. The word for gambling in Arabic, maysir, comes from the word yasira, which means to be easy and yassara, which means lucky chance or easy success at getting something of value without earning it (Kamali, 2000: 151). Various classifications of gharar (uncertainty) include pure speculation where the outcome depends on chance or gambling, uncertain outcome where the counter-value is uncertain or not realized, inexactitude of object, and unknown future of object. Speculation according to Kamali is the purchase and sale of an asset in the expectation of a gain from changes in the price of that asset (2000: 147). These conditions allow for the use of deception for material gain at the expense of the well-being of one of the parties and humanity as a whole.
According to Kamali “The Qu’ranic prohibition of maysir is based on the premise that an apparent agreement between the two parties is in actuality the result of unclean and immoral inducement, which is driven by the hope of making a profit at the expense of the other party to the agreement” (2000:152). “The gambling parties thus court a risk, which is of their own creation and which involves both the hope of gain as well as the fear of loss in a way that is not a necessary part of any of the normal activities in life” (Kamali, 2000:152). Kamali explains that “If in a contract of sale one party receives what was due to him, but the other does not and the latter’s side of the bargain is open to risk-taking (mukhatarah) of a kind that frustrates and nullifies his right, then the sale partakes both in gharar and gambling at the same time” (2000:154).
Gharar (uncertainty) can be related to risks arising from lack of knowledge about the contract (object, price, time of delivery), uncertainty about the existence and delivery of the object, and /or uncertainty of the outcome. Basically, gharar (uncertainty) relates to risks arising in contracts that dilute the pillars and objective of sale. Al Karshi states that the legal cause (illah) of the prohibition of gharar (uncertainty) are the inability to complete the sale, fairness in contracts including preventing the unjust devouring of people’s wealth (akl al-mal bi’l-batil) and the inequality in the counter-values of sale, and preventing the potential for dispute and hatred. Kamali explains that “Gharar occurs in a contract when one of the parties takes what is due to him but the other does not receive his entitlement. If his right continues to be unfulfilled, the first becomes guilty of the wrongful devouring of the property (akl al-mal bi’l-batil) of his counterpart in the transaction, and a gharar sale of this kind engages in gambling and punting (al-qimar wa’l maysir), which the Shari’ah has forbidden (2000:90). Devour not each other’s properties unlawfully unless it be through trading by your mutual consent (al Nisa, 4:29).
Kamali emphasizes that gambling or qimar is a combative relationship between two contracting parties, each of whom undertakes the risk of loss and the loss of one means gain for the other (2000:151). Kamali says that it is a violation of the law of equivalence, a kind of robbery by mutual agreement, like dueling, which is murder by mutual agreement (2000:151). “Gambling also consists of an appeal to chance, and making chance the arbiter of one’s conduct is to subvert the moral order and stability of life. It focuses attention on material gain and unwarranted reward in a way that is usually impulsive and can be so overwhelming as to divert attention from the pursuit of worthier activities in life” (Kamali, 2000:151). Kamali elaborates “Gambling destroys cooperation and fraternity in favor of combativeness and the desire to win, and it has no harmony with the normal processes that are important to civilization. It is characterized as a morally unclean activity, which sows the seeds of enmity and hatred among fellow human beings, as well as creating a barrier to piety, spiritual awareness, and the remembrance of God” (2000:151).
Prohibited gharar (uncertainty) must fulfill four conditions. Gharar has to be large as small amounts do not invalidate a contract; gharar must be in commutative (exchange) contracts; gharar should be linked to the principle object of the contract and not something attached to it; and gharar is allowed in cases of public need or necessity. Kamali states “Gharar is, however, a broad concept and may carry different shades of meanings in different kinds of transactions” (2011: 84). For instance, there may exist strong, medium, or weak gharar (uncertainty) in a contract and according to various scholars and schools, each form of gharar (uncertainty) may be permissible or impermissible. Mawil Izzi Dien explains that “This prohibition (on gharar) is deduced by examining various contracts, which are prohibited because of inherent gharar, such as the prohibition of exchange of that which is not measurable for that which is measurable, makil, and the prohibition of exchanging dry dates for fresh ones” (2004:74).
Gharar (uncertainty) can be found in the essence or object of the contract. It occurs in the essence of the contract when there are two sales in one, downpayment (Arbun) sales, conditional sales, or pebble, touch, or toss sales where the sale depends on an unrelated event, suspended (mu’allaq) sales where the sale is realized based on the outcome of a random event, and future sales, where the delivery of both counter-values occurs in the future and there is a sale of debt- for- debt or bai al kali bi al kali. Kamali says that in terms of pebble, touch, and toss sales (al-mulamasah wa’l munabadh), sales such as the offspring of an unborn animal (habal al-habala) or the sale of fruit prior to its ripening, sale of the unseen, sale of that which is unknown (bai al-ma’dum wa’l-majhul), and sales in which the vendor cannot deliver are forbidden because of the presence of risk-taking (mukhatarah) that involves devouring the property of others (2000:90). In terms of Arbun sale, it refers to a sale in which the buyer deposits money with the seller as part payment of the price in advance, but agrees that if he fails to ratify the contract, he will forfeit the deposit money, which the seller can then keep (Kamali, 2000:90). The question to be asked in all of these is whether they involve unlawful appropriation (alk al-mal bi’l-batil) and, if so, the sale is invalid and partakes of gambling (Kamali, 2000:154).
In terms of gharar in the object of the contract, ignorance of the object can exist in the object itself, the type of object, or the attributes and features of the object. There can be ignorance of the genus, species, attributes, quantity of the object, specific identity of the object; time of payment in deferred sales, inability to deliver object; time of payment in deferred sales; inability to deliver object; contracting on a non-existent object, and not seeing the object (Ayub, 2007:60). Even if all conditions of contract are fulfilled, the object has to be seen. In relation to non-existent objects, Ibn Qayyim and Sanhuri classified four cases: (1) When the object exists in essence, but comes into completion thereafter; (2) when the object is non-existent at the time of contract, but certainly exists in the future; (3) when the object is non-existent at the time of contract and the existence in the future is uncertain; and (4) when the object is non-existent at the time of contract and is expected not to exist in the future. Kamali elaborates that “of these four types, only the last two present situations in which gharar is deemed to be excessive and would, therefore, invalidate the contract (2000:91). Kamali explains that “as for the first two, Ibn Qayyim and al-Sanhuri have both concluded that gharar in them is negligible and the sale in both cases is therefore valid” (2000:91). Ayub says that in order to avoid uncertainty, Islamic law denies the power to sell (1) Things which, as the object of a legal transaction, do not exist; (2) Things which exist, but which are not in possession of the seller or the availability of which may not be expected; (3) Things which are exchanged on the basis of uncertain delivery and payment (2007: 60).
The lack of knowledge in terms of contract and object and non-existence of object creates risk (gharar). In Shari’ah, risks cannot be sold separately (unbundled) as this does not fall under the category of mal (property). Ignorance and non-existence of object cannot be compensated with price and risk itself cannot be priced and sold, but risk associated with sale can be priced and sold (bundled risk). In order to illustrate this point, Kamali interestingly points out that in the case of options, the sale is valid even though one of the counter-values consists merely of granting a right, or a privilege, as opposed to a tangible asset, service or usufruct (manfa’ah) that has no concrete reality and existence at the time of contract as it can be bought and sold in the same way as a tangible asset, or mal” (2009:194). This is of course debatable amongst the scholars and the different schools of Islamic jurisprudence. Kamali points that “the Shafi’s and Hanbalis include usufruct under the definition of (mal) property, but the Hanafis and Malikis do not” (2000:194). According to Kamali, the option price or premium is normally paid in cash and the price is in this case mal (property) (2000:201). In a contract of sale, each party must receive the counter-values, the object of sale and price. This is referred to as qabd and taqabud. The seller must deliver the goods (taslim) and the buyer must take possession (qabd). In salam and istisnaa, the requirement of qabd has been omitted due to necessity of the people (Kamali, 2009: 122).
According to Visser, “the ban on gharar (uncertainty) implies that commercial partners should know exactly the counter-value that is offered in a transaction” (2009:45). Kamali states that gharar can be summarized in four main ways. These are on account of uncertainty and risk pertaining to the existence of the subject matter of a sale, or its availability, uncertainty about the quantities involved and lastly, uncertainty about time of completion and delivery (2000:93). Visser says that in order to avoid gharar (uncertainty), “one should make sure that both the subject and prices of the sale exist and that parties are able to deliver; specify the characteristics and the amounts of the counter-values; and define the quantity, quality, and date of future delivery” (2009:45). Visser also says that “a seller/financier first must own the goods before they can sell or lease them, which implies that the goods must exist before they can sell or lease them” (2009:75). One should also possess or constructively possess the subject-matter of sale before sale (qabd). Another aspect of gharar (uncertainty) concerns complexity in contracts. A contract should not cover more than one transaction and thus, there is a prohibition on two sales transactions in one. For example, Visser says that a sales transaction and a lease agreement cannot be combined into one contract (2009:75). Visser explains that Muslim jurists treat the ban on gharar (uncertainty) as an injunction to maintain commutative justice or the just price, which is the market price (2009:47). Before entering into a contract, both parties should have full knowledge of relevant facts, including the market price (Visser, 2009:47). Ayub says that to avoid gharar (uncertainty), the contracts must be free from excessive uncertainty about the subject-matter and its counter-value in exchanges; the commodity must be defined, determined and deliverable and clearly known to the contracting parties, quality and quantity must be stipulated, a contract must not be doubtful or uncertain so far as rights and obligations of the contracting parties are concerned, there should be no Jahl or uncertainty about availability, existence, and deliverability of goods and the parties should know the actual state of the goods (2007:61).
Mawil Izzi Dien says “The prohibition related to these contracts is established due to the potential for deception that could result from not knowing the quantity of one of the exchanged commodities” (2004:74). Gharar (uncertainty) leads the financial system into a zero-sum game, where one’s benefit is someone else’s loss. However, gharar is allowed in circumstances where the harm outweighs the benefit. Kamali says “Should there be a public need for it, gharar, even if excess priority by virtue of the Qu’ranic principle of removal of hardship” (2011:84). The Shari’ah thus validates salam (advance purchase) and istisna’a (manufacture contract) regardless of the gharar (uncertainty) elements therein, simply because of the people’s need for them” (2010: 85). However, gharar is for the most part prohibited as it promotes immorality, moral and social decay, societal disintegration, volatile markets and financial instability, and opens the door for deception and ruthless greed. In fact, “to Ibn Taymiyyah, the evil of gambling is greater than riba, for gambling combines two evils: the unlawful acquisition of property and the playing of an unlawful game, both of which are haram” (Kamali, 2000:151).
Despite clear rules on riba (interest) and gharar (uncertainty) found in the Shari’ah, Islamic finance and banking today still incorporates elements of riba (interest) and gharar (uncertainty) in its practice as well as utilizes debt rather than equity- financing.
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